Judith Butler and Slavoj Zizek, who are both very active and in some respects in the prime of their careers. Judith Butler started her carier with the work on French Hegelianism and her dissertation had to do with the status of Hegel in modern France. She moved on to work on gender and sexuality in a book called Gender Trouble which really was a game changer in the field of women’s studie gay and lesbian studies and queer studie as it came to be called later.
To understand gender as a historical category, however, is to accept that gender, understood as one way of culturally configuring a body, is open to a continual remaking, and that ‘anatomy’ and ‘sex’ are not without cultural framing. Undoing Gender
If gender is a kind of doing, an incessant activity performed, in part, without one’s knowing and without one’s willing, it is not for that reason automatic or mechanical. On the contrary, it is a practice of improvisation within a scene of constraint.
[Humankind] The Law of Religion. Part 4
Humanism is the belief that Homo sapiens has an unique and sacred nature which is fundamentally different from the nature of all the other animals and of all other phenomena in the universe. Humanists believe that the unique nature of Homo sapiense is the most important thing in the world and it is this that determines the meaning of everything that happens in the universe.
Liberal Humanism which believes that humanity is a quality of individual humans. According to Liberals, the sacred nature of humanity resides within each and every individual Homo sapiens. And therefore, the supreme values of the world is the liberty of individuals.
Socialist Humanism believes that humanity is collective and not individualistic. Socialists hold as sacred not the inner voice of each individual, but the species Homo sapiens as a whole, seeks equality between all humans. Inequality is the worst blasphemy (богохульство) against the sanctity of humanity, because inequality privileges peripheral qualities of humans over their common universal essence. For example, when the rich are given privileges which are withheld from the poor, it means that we value money more than we value the universal essence of all humans which is similar for everybody, for rich and poor alike.
Evolutionary humanism (the most famous representatives were the Nazis). Nazis too believed in the sanctity of humanity. They had a different defenition of humanity than the Liberals and the Socialists. The Nazis were deeply influenced by the theory of evolution, believed that humankind is not something universal and eternal and unchanging. Rather, they believed that it is a specie of animals which can evolve or degenerate in accordance with the theory of evolution. The main ambition of the Nazis was to protect human kind from the generation extinction and encourage the evolution of human kind into super men.